What produces mitra's effects?
Kratom is an organic substance with multiple strains and diverse methods of preparation. Therefore, unlike synthetic opioids, its chemical composition is complex, and the effects of this composition are dynamic.
Its main alkaloids are mitragynine, paynanthine, speciociliatine, and the more minor 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG).
It has long been assumed that mitragynine is the primary active alkaloid in kratom, but Dr. Zurina Hassan et al suggests that it may in fact be less potent than the less abundant 7-HMG.
Kratom is an agonist of the µ-opioid receptors. However, it is also an antagonist of the δ- and κ-opioid receptors. Moreover, kratom does not recruit β-arrestin-2, which is associated with classic opioid side effects like respiratory depression, euphoria, and tolerance development.